Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Rapid oak seasoning with microbes

The Academic Wino
December 20, 2011

As a result of the relatively high cost of oak barrels, winemakers have been searching for a comparable alternative at a fraction of the cost.  Oak chips, while somewhat taboo in their earlier days, are gaining favor among winemakers as being a good alternative to the traditional oak barrel.  In blind taste tests, consumers showed no preference for wine aged in oak barrels versus wine aged with oak chips.  For the details of that particular study, click here to read a past review by The Academic Wino.

Producing staves for barrel or oak chips is not a fast process.  One of the lengthiest steps is the outdoor seasoning process, which takes anywhere from 24 to 36 months.  It is during this time that the wood undergoes many biochemical transformations of biopolymers and other compounds by fungi and bacteria.  Studies have found the fungi population present during this seasoning process consists ofAureobasidium pullulans (83%), Trichoderma harzianum, andTrichoderma konigii (the latter two making up 15% of the population).  These fungi function to hydrolyze wood heterosides (including ellagitannins, coumarins, and polysaccharides) which result in a decrease in bitterness and astringency.

Over the 24-36 month seasoning time, the fungal community changes.  Over this time, fungi belonging to the genera PenicillumGeomyces, and Geotrichum, with the species Penicillum purpurogenum the most represented.  In the internal layers of the staves, studies have found that the species Candida sp., Paecilomyces variotii, andPhialemonium sp. were the most represented molds.

Some scientists have hypothesized that by inoculating oak staves with certain fungi, they may be able to better control the metabolic reactions and therefore which wood compounds are hydrolyzed.  This could potentially lead to new seasoning places and greater customization of the desired flavors in the wine that is aged in a particular barrel or with particular oak chips.  Some studies have reported that by inoculating oak staves with fungi have increased the seasoning rate, thereby dropping the wait time for a finished staves or oak chips from 12-36 months to just one month.

The goal of the paper reviewed today, which was published last year, was to treat oak chips with certain combinations of fungi in order to potentially improve the impact of oak chips in red wine maceration, and to obtain effects comparable to wine aged in oak barrels.


The following fungi were used in this experiment:  Ph. chrysosporium Burds. (MUT 2660), P. purpurogenum Stoll (MUT 3316), A. pullulans (de Bary) G. Arnaud (MUT 3237), and Phi. obovatum W. Gams & McGinnis (MUT 2702).  The fungi used were all non-mycotoxinogenic.  After an incubation period, an agar plug (8mm in diameter from along the edge of an actively growing colony) of each fungus was used to prepare and inoculate the oak chips.  Each preparation used a different combination of fungi and growth medium.

Oak chips were toasted at a low degree and were of medium size.  A 3mL aliquot of fungi and growth medium preparations was added to a flask containing 4g of oak chips and either 12mL of laboratory medium or 12mL of saline solution.  Oak chips were sterilized either with the laboratory medium or the saline solution.

These cultures were incubated for 12 weeks in the dark under static conditions at temperatures optimized for each type of fungus.  In addition to each fungus by itself, a combination of A. pullulans and Ph. chrysosporium was studied.  For this combination, oak chips were first inoculated with A. pullulans for 6 weeks, then sterilized, then inoculated with Ph. chrysosporium for another 6 weeks.

Following the incubation period, oak chips were removed and brushed off to remove visible pieces of debris.  The chips were then used for aging of red wine using traditional winemaking processes.  The two grape varieties used were Montepulciano d’Abruzzo (70%) and Merlot (30%) from the 2006 vintage and originating from vineyards in San Severo, Apuila (southern Italy).  Artificial aging was done by placing 1g of oak chips in 500mL bottles containing the wine and storing them in a 20oC room (82% relatively humidity) for 17 days.

The following volatiles were measured and analyzed: furfural, furfuryl alcohol, guaiacol, syringol, cis-β-methyl-γ-octalactone, 2-phenylethanol, 4-vinylguaiacol, benzyl alcohol, 2,3-butanediol, γ-butyrolactone, benzylaldehyde, and 4-ethylguaiacol.  Gallic acid and ellagic acid were also analyzed.

Sensory Notes: 
  •        Furfural, furfuryl alcohol, guaiacol, syringol, cis-β-methyl-γ-octalactone are frequently present in wine after oak aging. 
  •       2-phenylethanol and 4-vinylguaiacol are known fermentation products, and have been shown to increase after oak aging.  
  •       4-ethylguaiacol is associated with Brettanomyces or Dekkera infections, and is associated with characteristic flavors such as “bacon” or “smoked”.  
  •       Cis-β-methyl-γ-octalactone is associated with oaky characteristics such as coconut and vanilla.
  •       Furfural contributes to characters such as “dried fruits” and “burned almonds”.  Studies have shown it does not play an important role in the aroma of wine, though it may strengthen the aroma of lactones.
  •       Guaiacol contributes to “burnt” overtones in wine aroma.
  •       Syringol is an indicator of the relative toast of the oak wood.  Compared to guaiacol, it has a weak odor and relatively little impact on the flavor of the wine.
  •       Benyzlaldehyde is associated with a “bitter almond” aroma.
  •       2,3-butanediol is odorless, though still contributes to the sweet taste of a wine.


  •       Cis-β-methyl-γ-octalactone was present in all wine samples.
  •       The presence and concentrations of specific volatile compounds and phenols were influenced by the type of fungus and medium used for the particular oak chip treatment.


  •       Concentrations of furfural were significantly affected by Ph. chrysosporium and P. purpurogenum by increasing in both laboratory medium and saline solution treatment.  Perception threshold was not reached.
  •       There were no significant changes with any other treatment.
  •       Furfural appears to be the most susceptible oak wood volatile compound to microbial transformations.


  •       Fungal treatment of the oak chips resulted in a significant increase in the concentration of guaiacol.

o   For the saline solution, this increase was found in the treatments inoculated with P. purpurogenumA. pullulans, and Phi. obovatum.
o   For the laboratory medium, this increase was found in the treatments inoculated with P. purpurogenum and A. pullulans.
o   For treatments with A. pullulans, guaiacol was above the perception threshold.


  •       For the saline solution, there was an increase of syringol concentrations with the treatments inoculated with P. purpurogenum.
  •       For the laboratory medium, higher levels (above perception threshold) of syringol were found in the treatments inoculated with P. purpurogenum and A. pullulans.


  •       For the saline solution, fungal treatment decreased the concentrations of benzylaldehyde (except the treatment with Ph. chrysosporium).
  •        For the laboratory medium, there was a significant increase in benzylaldehyde concentrations.


  •       For both the saline solution and laboratory medium, there was a decrease in 2,3-butanediol levels in all fungal treatments except samples treated with A. pullulans.

Ellagic and Gallic Acids

  •       Ellagic acid and gallic acid were metabolized by the fungi, with the exception of wines treated with P. purpurogenum in the laboratory medium.

What do these results means?

The results of this study show that the fungal treatment of the oak chips significantly affected the chemical profile of the wine.  Based on principle components statistical analysis, the results showed two distinct groups that affected wines in specific ways.  Oak chips treated with Phi. obovatum, A. pullulans, and the combination of A. pullulans and Ph. chrysosporium (“Group A”)affected the chemical profile of wines in one particular way, and oak chips treated with P. purpurogenum and Ph. chrysosporiumaffected the chemical profile of wines in another way (“Group B”).

Group A treated wines showed increases in guaiacol and syringol concentrations, whereas Group B treated wines showed increases in furfural and benzylaldehyde concentrations.

Even though the effect of the fungi were variable depending upon what kind of medium was used for the chips (laboratory medium versus saline solution), Group B treated wines showed increases in furfural and benzylaldehyde regardless of the medium the chips were treated with.

Based on these results, the authors claim that the microfungal treatment of oak chips increases the concentrations of some volatile components in red wine during aging.  It may be possible, that with fungal treatment of oak chips for the aging of red wines, to tailor the flavors and aromas to those desired for a particular style of finished wine.  If the goal is to have a wine with greater “toasty” character, the use of fungi from Group A may be useful.  If the goal is to have a wine with more “dried fruit” or “almond” character, then a fungi of Group B may be better.

Of course, this research is in its infancy, and more work would need to be done, particularly in regard to examining the biology and enzymatic profile of the fungi, and any potential positive or negative health consequences of using it in the aging of wines.

I’d love to hear what you all think of the use of fungi in extracting more oak character from oak chips in the aging of wine.  Please feel free to leave your comments below!

Source:  Petruzzi, L., Bevilacqua, A., Ciccarone, C., Gambacorta, G., Irlante, G., Pati, S., and Sinigaglia, M. 2010. Use of microfungi in the treatment of oak chips: possible effects on wine. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90: 2617-2626.

DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4130

Friday, December 2, 2011

Tannin Additions Myth

New Research Busts Tannin Additions Myth, Sparks Trans-Pacific Collaboration

This just in from Washington State University

December 1, 2011

New Research Busts Tannin Additions Myth, Sparks Trans-Pacific Collaboration

A pile of tannin powder. Image courtesy Wikimedia Commons.
Tannin powder. Image courtesy Wikimedia Commons.
If you’re using tannin additions in your red winemaking process, you may well be wasting your money, according to recently published research by Washington State University enologist Jim Harbertson and Australian wine and grape researcher Mark Downey, a lead researcher at Victoria’s Department of Primary Industries.
Harbertson, Downey and their colleagues analyzed commercially available tannin additives and found them to be, at best, an unnecessary expense for red wines made from Washington-grown grapes.
Many winemaking manuals recommend adding tannins, though, in the belief that the additions help bolster mouth feel and improve color in red wine. A red wine’s mouth feel is the result of a range of chemicals causing astringency and is described with a variety of words ranging from “velvety” to “drying.”
Enologist Jim Harbertson (center) with research winemaker Richard Larsen (l) and doctoral student Frederico Cassas
Enologist Jim Harbertson (center) with research winemaker Richard Larsen (l) and doctoral student Frederico Casassa. Photo: Brian Clark/WSU.
“At the recommended dosage, these additives are, at most, giving a slight tweak to astringency,” Harbertson said. “In higher doses, you get some aroma shifting and a negative impact on sensory character. It made them earthy tasting, and turned the wine brown.”
Harbertson and Downey collaborated with renowned sensory scientist Hildegarde Heymann, professor of enology at UC Davis, and her Italian post-doctoral student, Giuseppina Parpinello, to conduct sensory analyses of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with tannin additions. “In a collaboration with Chateau Ste. Michelle, we added commercial tannin products to both barrel-aging Merlot and to Cabernet Sauvignon after pressing the grapes,” Harbertson said. “We used a range of concentrations and a variety of commercially available additives to get a sense of what is going on when these products are added to Washington wines.”
Harbertson explained that there is a crucial difference between taste (flavor, aroma) and astringency, or mouth feel. “Mouth feel is a tactile sensation,” he said. “It’s basically the removal of the lubricating proteins that naturally occur in the mouth. Aroma and flavor, in contrast, are receptor-based and are caused by our taste buds being stimulated by the flavor and aroma molecules in wine. Astringency is thought to be a result of chemical precipitation in which tannin molecules bind the lubricating proteins in the mouth, thus taking them out of action. That’s why some wines have a drying or ’spikey’ mouth feel, as the overabundance of tannins rob the mouth of its lubricants.”
Not only did the additives have a limited or negative impact on wine quality, analysis of the products revealed them to be, at most, only 48 percent tannin. “On the low end, we found some products to contain as little as 12 percent tannin,” Harbertson said. The products contain fillers that enable the additives to go into solution more easily. Harbertson and Downey conducted the analysis of the tannin additives.
“The bottom line for Washington red winemakers is this,” Harbertson said. “We have plenty of naturally occurring tannins available in red grapes grown here. In an industry with tight margins and dealing with global competition, we are suggesting that the added extra expense of adding tannins is simply unnecessary.”
Wine and grape research Mark Downey in his lab in Victoria, Australia.
Wine and grape research Mark Downey in his lab in Victoria, Australia. Photo courtesy Mark Downey.
Downey observed that “Tannins additives are one of the many tools available to winemakers in Australia and have been used extensively by some producers without a clear understanding of their impact. Some winemakers consider their addition essential, while for others it is more of an insurance policy, but neither approach is based on science. Given that tannin additions are an added cost, understanding their impact may result in cost-savings for producers. In the current economic climate, this is of considerable interest.”
Harbertson speculated that tannin additions might control some problems faced by white wine makers, such as protein haze or Botrytis. “But this idea has not been scientifically tested,” he pointed out.
He also mentioned that certain hybrid grape varieties, once grown in Europe for their resistance to diseases and pests, don’t produce much tannin on their own, so an additive is needed. However, most hybrids aren’t grown in Europe simply because they produce wine that is too acidic for most consumers. Several hybrid varieties are still grown on the east coast of the U.S. and in Ontario, Canada, where they are popular as constituents of the ice wines enjoyed in the region.
“This study shows us what happens when you add tannins at one end of the spectrum. What we need to do is look at the other end: adding tannins to wines from low-tannin regions or fruit grown in high volumes in a warm climate. Not all of these conditions are present in Washington or Victoria (or convenient to our research programs) so it makes sense to work together,” said Downey.
Downey said that his and Harbertson’s research programs “are complementary rather than competitive. The knowledge earned from scientific research doesn’t give you a competitive advantage. Rather, it’s how growers and winemakers use that knowledge that gives you the advantage. Working together actually achieves more for our respective industries. By collaborating and sharing the load, the Washington industry gets more research outcomes for the same research dollar invested and so do we.”
Indeed, Harbertson and Downey plan to continue their collaborative research. Among other things, they will be investigating the effects of aging red wines in oak barrels. Like so much of their work, both together and individually, the role of oak and oak’s contribution of tannins, in wine quality is assumed but not well understood. This and other questions have led the scientists’ respective institutions to sign a formal agreement, allowing them to collaborate over the long term in ways that would not otherwise be possible.
–Brian Clark
The paper discussed in this article, “Impact of exogenous tannin additions on wine chemistry and wine sensory character,” will be published in the April, 2012 issue of the journal Food Chemistry. The paper was published online Oct. 1 and readers with access to a subscribing institution may access the paper by visiting http://bit.ly/wsutannins.

Wednesday, November 23, 2011

Maybe good Brett and bad Brett

Winebiz - Australia's Wine Industry Portal By Winetitles
Daily Wine News

Australian scientists crack the code in world-first Brett research

Australian winemakers will soon have more control in managing wine spoilage thanks to breakthrough research which has revealed the genetic makeup of a problem yeast.
Scientists at The Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) have sequenced the genome of Dekkera bruzellensis(Brettanomyces), commonly known as Brett, and in doing so have uncovered its genetic blueprint
The research, which was funded by the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation, was published for the first time in the November/December 2011 issue of the Wine and Viticulture Journal, out now.
The discovery is a world-first for the Australian wine industry and could lead to new strategies to manage the yeast, which has the potential to spoil wine with its ‘medicinal’ and ‘metallic’ characters.
AWRI managing director, professor Sakkie Pretorius, says the research will give Australian winemakers the upper-hand in tackling the spoilage yeast.
“Sequencing the Brett genome, which reveals its genetic blueprint, means the Australian wine industry can future-proof its strategy against Brett and the risk of spoilage,” Pretorius said.
The incident of Brett spoilage in Australia has dropped by 90 per cent, but the possibility of Brett developing from sulfite-resistance still exists.
Dr Chris Curtin, lead AWRI researcher on the Brett genomics project, says it was this reason the AWRI set out to crack its genetic code.
“Sequencing the Brett genome means we can investigate the potential for an emergence of a ‘super’ strain that is resistant to sulfite treatment. We’ve already found the most important gene responsible for sulfite tolerance in Brett,” Dr Curtin said.
He says the research was like working on “a giant jigsaw puzzle” but has worked to deliver useful results.
“We’ve now cracked the code of ‘the enemy’ and we’re working on new weapons for winemakers to use against this spoilage yeast,” he said.

Monday, November 21, 2011

Reusing Water

In the wine world, he is known for his famous book “winemaking practices”. His name isRoger Boulton and he is professor at the Davis University (California). Boulton is devoted to research on sustainability in winemaking processes and today, he is in charge of the world’ first sustainable winery, a pilot model created by the U.C. Davis.
Invited by Coviar, INTA and INV to be lecturer in the 2011 Argentine Symposium of Viticulture and Winemaking (SAVE), held at “Bodega Centenario” in Mendoza (Argentina) during three days, Boulton was one of the main attraction of the event. His talk was focused on the “own measure” that every wine region and company should have in order to know whether or not they are sustainable. Likewise, he stressed practices to conserve water and energy, “capturing” carbon and he explained how the University’s pilot winery works, something that, for some people present, sounds like science fiction.
Water: a crucial asset for the business
“Nowadays, water is the most important commodity, because it is limited”, highlighted Boulton “Thus in the future, we will have to use it more than once in order that our business can be viable.”
He continued: “Today, practically in all companies water is used only once, or it is used a second time at most in other application. “In order to have a water footprint indicating that we are sustainable (this footprint or measure will depend on each project), I recommend touse water twice o more in the same application.”
He exemplified that in a winery, the way of measuring the water footprint will be given mainly by the surface to be washed, tanks, barrels and equipment. For that reason, to reduce the use of water, firstly it is necessary to change some winemaking practices. “The transferring of wine requires the use of water each time it is carried out to wash the tank. For that reason, while less vat capacity the winery has more water it will use.”This is the first concept dispelling the idea that small wineries use less water than the big ones.
“The equipment we use determines the amount of water per liter of wine we use,” then he added. “We should reduce the number of racking, or consider some methods to capture water, filter and re-use it many times.”
“By means of certain equipment and chemicals allowing the re-use of water, we only add 10% of new water to the cycle”, explained Boulton, “this way, in 10 cycles we would use only 1/5 of water we normally would have used.”
Therefore, he mentioned alternative practices with new equipments and chemicals, which are being tested, such as the flotation cell, or the columns for protein absorption, -material similar to the bentonite that can be used hundreds of times- by means of which wine, once cooled, goes through the  place where proteins rest and returns to the top of the tank. “This way, we handle all the volume together, without racking,” he explained.
When he show the model with which the sustainable winery works in Davis, California, Boulton explained that all the rainwater that falls on the roofs (solar panels) and in the courtyard is recovered. Then, water is filtered, cleaned and put into tanks. Then, this water is used for the irrigation of gardens and for bathrooms.